Monitoring and Metrics for SDG 11


Here are documents that are mainly official reports on the progress of the SDGs all of which also have parts referring to SDG 11. In addition this section includes articles on the targets and indicators for SDG 11 and their measurement.


Berisha, Erblin; Caprioli, Caterina and Cotella, Giancarlo (2022) Unpacking SDG target 11.a : What is it about and how to measure its progress? City and Environment Interactions, vol. 14, April 2022, 100080,

Dashti, Zahra Tobabi (2022) A guideline to support the monitoring of SDG 11 : using open geospatial data extracted by Earth observation and Machine Learning (MSc. Geo-information Science and Earth Observation). Twente: University of Twente.

Guo, Huadong; Liang, Dong; Sun, Zhongchang; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xinyuan; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Li; Bian, Jinhu; Wei, Yanqiang; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yu; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Xiaosong; Lu, Shanlong; Liu, Jie and Shirazi, Zeeshan (2022) Measuring and evaluating SDG indicators with Big Earth Data, Science Bulletin,

Tasnim, Sumya; Mahbub, Farzana; Biswas, Gopa and Haque, Dewan Mohammad Enamul (2022) Spatial indices and SDG indicator-based urban environmental change detection of the major cities in Bangladesh. Journal of Urban Management, 11(4), 519-529.
Verde, Natalia; Patias, Petros and Mallinis, Giorgos (2022) A cloud-based mapping approach using deep learning and very-high spatial resolution earth observation data to facilitate the SDG 11.7.1 indicator computation, Remote Sensing, vol. 14, no. 4, 1011;

Abastante, Francesca; Lami, Isabella M. and Gaballo, Marika (2021) Pursuing the SDG11 targets : the role of the sustainability protocols, Sustainability, vol. 13, no.7, 3858,

Giuliani, Gregory; Petri, Ekkehard; Interwies, Eduard; Vysna, Veronika; Guigoz, Yaniss; Ray, Nicolas and Dickie, Ian (2021) Modelling accessibility to urban green areas using Open Earth Observations Data : a novel approach to support the urban SDG in four European cities, Remote Sensing, vol. 13, no.3, 422;

Hiniker,Alexandra (2021) How to align city strategies with the SDGs: Embracing common language to measure and amplify progress, In: Anthony F. Pipa and Max Bouchet (Eds.) City playbook for advancing the SDGs, Washington, Center for Sustainable Development at Brookings

Laituri, Melinda; Davis, Danielle; Sternlieb, Faith and Galvin, Kathleen (2021) SDG Indicator 11.3.1 and secondary cities : an analysis and assessment, International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 10, no. 11:713,

Li, Chaopeng; Cai, Guoyin and Du Mingyi (2021) Big Data Supported the Identification of Urban Land Efficiency in Eurasia by Indicator SDG 11.3.1, ISPRS International Journal of Geo Information, 10(2), 64;

Malin, Mia; Hällström, Johanna af and Kuikka, Pirita (2021) Increasing government effectiveness using the SDGs : from Helsinki’s first to second Voluntary Local Review, In: Anthony F. Pipa and Max Bouchet (Eds.) City playbook for advancing the SDGs, Washington, Center for Sustainable Development at Brookings

Martinelli Fernanda Silva and Lindner, André (2021) How far are the metropolitan areas in Brazil from achieving the sustainable development goals? An analysis based on SDG dashboards, SN Social Sciences, 1, 103,

Mbatha, Sandile and Khanyile, Beryl (2021) Building a data ecosystem to accelerate local SDG progress and action : How the City of Durban collaborated with external partners to drive data solutions, In: Anthony F. Pipa and Max Bouchet (Eds.) City playbook for advancing the SDGs, Washington, Center for Sustainable Development at Brookings

Ochoa-Covarrubias, Gabriela; Grindlay, Alejandro Luis and Lizarraga, Carmen (2021) Does the mass public transport system cover the social transport needs? Targeting SDG 11.2 in Guadalajara, Mexico, Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 6:7709,

Osman, Taher; Kenawy, Emad; Abdrabo, Karim I.; Shaw, David; Alshamndy, Aref; Elsharif, Mohamed; Salem. Muhammad; Alwetaishi, Mamdooh; Aly, Reda M. and Elboshy, Bahaa (2021) Voluntary Local Review Framework to monitor and evaluate the progress towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals at a city level: Buraidah City, KSA and SDG11 as a case study, Sustainability, vol. 13, no 17:9555,

Shulla, Kalterina and Köszeghy, Lea (2021) Progress report : Sustainable Development Goal 11 : target 11.1 : “By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums”, Washington, Habitat for Humanity

Siragusa, A.; Proietti, P.; Bertozzi, C.; Coll Aliaga, E.; Foracchia, S.; Irving, A.; Monni, S.; Pacheco Oliveira, M. and Sisto, R. (2021) Building urban datasets for the SDGs : six European cities monitoring the 2030 Agenda, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union,

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) (2021) Instruction manual : 2021 Survey of expenditure on Cultural and Natural Heritage (SDG 11.4.1), Montreal, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) (2021) Tracking investment to safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage Results of the 2020 UIS Survey on Expenditure on Cultural and Natural Heritage (SDG Indicator 11.4.1), Montreal, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics


Aguilar, Rosa and Kuffer, Monika (2020) Cloud Computation Using High-Resolution Images for Improving the SDG Indicator on Open Spaces, Remote Sensing, vol. 12, no. 7, 1144;

Akuraju, Vamsidhar; Pradhan, Prajal; Haase, Dagmarp; Kropp, Jürgen P. and Rybski, Diego (2020) Relating SDG11 indicators and urban scaling - an exploratory study, Sustainable cities and society, vol. 52, 101853,

Almeida, Ana C. L. (2019) Multi actor multi criteria analysis (MAMCA) as a tool to build indicators and localize sustainable development goal 11 in Brazilian municipalities, Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 8, e02128,

Aquilino, Mariella; Tarantino, Cristina; Adamo, Maria; Barbanente, Angela and Blonda, Palma (2020) Earth Observation for the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 11 Indicators at Local Scale : Monitoring of the Migrant Population Distribution, Remote Sensing, vol. 12, no. 6, 950;

Ghosh, Tilottama; Coscieme, Luca; Anderson, Sharolyn J. and Sutton, Paul (2020) Building Volume Per Capita (BVPC) : a spatially explicit measure of inequality relevant to the SDGs [Research topic : Urban Sustainability Goals and the New Urban Agenda]. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 2:37.

Giles-Corti, Billie; Lowe, Melanie and Arundel, Jonathan (2020) Achieving the SDGs : evaluating indicators to be used to benchmark and monitor progress towards creating healthy and sustainable cities, Health Policy, vol. 124, no. 6, June 2020, pp. 581-590,

Guzman, Paloma (2020) Assessing the sustainable development of the historic urban landscape through local indicators. Lessons from a Mexican World Heritage City, Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol. 46, November–December 2020, pp 320-327,

Hsu, Angel; Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Thomas, Ryan; Manya, Diego; Weinfurter, Amy; Chin, Nicholas Jian Wei; Goyal, Nihit and Feierman, Andrew (2020) Measuring what matters, where it matters : a ppatially explicit urban environment and social inclusion index for the Sustainable Development Goals [Research topic : Urban Sustainability Goals and the New Urban Agenda]. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 2:556484.

Kuffer, Monika; Thomson, Dana R.; Boo, Gianluca; Mahabir, Ron; Grippa, Taïs;  Vanhuysse, Sabine; Engstrom, Ryan; Ndugwa, Robert; Makau, Jack; Darin, Edith; Albuquerque, João Porto de and Kabaria, Caroline (2020) The Role of Earth Observation in an Integrated Deprived Area Mapping “System” for Low-to-Middle Income Countries, Remote Sensing, vol. 12, no. 6, 982;

Merino-Saum ,A.; Halla, P.; Superti, V.; Boesch, A. and Binder, C. R. (2020) Indicators for urban sustainability : key lessons from a systematic analysis of 67 measurement initiatives, Ecological Indicators, vol. 119, December 2020, 106879,

Mudau, Naledzani; Mwaniki, Dennis; Tsoeleng, Lesiba; Mashalane, Morwapula; Beguy, Donatien and Ndugwa, Robert (2020) Assessment of SDG Indicator 11.3.1 and urban growth trends of major and small cities in South Africa, Sustainability 2020, 12, 7063,

Musango, Josephine Kaviti; Currie, Paul; Smit, Suzanne and Kovacic, Zora (2020) Urban metabolism of the informal city : probing and measuring the ‘unmeasurable’ to monitor Sustainable Development Goal 11 indicators, Ecological Indicators, vol. 119, December 2020, 106746,

Prakash, Mihir; Kamiya, Marco; Ndugwa, Robert and Cheng Mengfan (2020) Counting the costs : a method for evaluating the cost of achieving SDG 11 [Research topic : Urban Sustainability Goals and the New Urban Agenda]. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 2:554728.

Petti, Luigi; Trillo, Claudia and Makore, Busisiwe Ncube (2020) Cultural heritage and sustainable development targets : a possible harmonisation? Insights from the European perspective, Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 3, 926,

Resnicoff, Francisco and Miodosky, Marisa (2020) How Buenos Aires uses the SDGs to advance women’s rights : a data-driven approach to gender equity in the public space, In: Anthony F. Pipa and Max Bouchet (Eds.) City playbook for advancing the SDGs, Washington, Center for Sustainable Development at Brookings

Steiniger, Stefan; Wagemann, Elizabeth; Barrer, Franciscode la; Molinos-Senante, María; Villegas, Rodrigo; Fuente, Helende la; Vives, Alejandra; Arce, Guillermo; Herrera, Juan-Carlos; Carrasco, Juan-Antonio; Pastén, Pablo A.; Juan-Carlos Muñoz and Barton, Jonathan R. (2020) Localising urban sustainability indicators : The CEDEUS indicator set, and lessons from an expert-driven process, Cities, vol. 101, 102683,

United Nations (2020) Tier Classification for Global SDG Indicators as of 28 December 2020, ,New York, United Nations Statistics Division.

Wang. Xinyuan; Ren, Hongge; Wang, Pu; Yang, Ruixia; Luo, Lei and Cheng, Fulong (2018) A preliminary study on Target 11.4 for UN Sustainable Development Goals, International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 18-24,

Wang, Yunchen; Huang, Chunlin; Feng, Yaya;  Zhao, Minyan and Gu, Juan (2020) Using Earth Observation for Monitoring SDG 11.3.1-Ratio of Land Consumption Rate to Population Growth Rate in Mainland China, Remote Sensing, vol. 12, no. 3, 357;


Almeida, Ana C. L. (2019) Multi actor multi criteria analysis (MAMCA) as a tool to build indicators and localize sustainable development goal 11 in Brazilian municipalities, Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 8, e02128,

Barbier, Edward B. and Burgess, Joanne C. (2019) Sustainable development goal indicators : analyzing trade-offs and complementarities, World Development, vol. 122, pp, 295-305,

Biggeri, Mario; Clark, David A.; Ferrannini, Andrea and Mauro, Vincenzo (2019) Tracking the SDGs in an ‘integrated’ manner : a proposal for a new index to capture synergies and trade-offs between and within goals, World Development, vol. 122, pp. 628-647,

Bromaghim, Erin; Garcetti, Eric and Comer, Dawn (2019) Revising National SDG targets for the City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles
Brussel, Mark; Zuidgeest, Mark; Pfeffer, Karin and Maarseveen, Martin van (2019) Access or accessibility? A critique of the urban SDG indicator, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no. 2,
Chan, Puthearath and Lee, Myeong-Hun (2019) Developing sustainable city indicators for Cambodia through Delphi processes of panel surveys, Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 11, 3166;

Chinese Academy of Sciences (2019) Big earth data in support of the Sustainable Development Goals, Beijing, Big Earth Data Program, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)

This report addresses five SDGs, including: SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 14 (Life below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land). For SDG 11, this report focuses on five indicators,  including  public  transport  (SDG  11.2.1),  urbanization  (SDG  11.3.1),  cultural  and  natural  heritage  (SDG  11.4.1),  PM2.5  (SDG  11.6.2)  and  public  spaces  (SDG  11.7.1). This  report  utilizes  Big  Earth  Data  in  place  of  the  traditional  statistical  data  and  increases  the  spatiotemporal  resolution  of  SDG  indicator  evaluation. It also  develops  and  employs  the  Big  Earth Data methods for assessing China’s domestic practices aimed  at  achieving  SDG  11. 

Diaz-Sarachaga, Jose Manuel and Jato-Espino, Daniel (2019) Development and application of a new Resilient, Sustainable, Safe and Inclusive Community Rating System (RESSICOM), Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 207, pp. 971-979,, also available at ResearchGate

Giles-Corti, Billie; Lowe, Melanie and Arundel, Jonathan (2019) Achieving the SDGs : evaluating indicators to be used to benchmark and monitor progress towards creating healthy and sustainable cities, Health Policy [In Press, corrected proof]

Hansson, Stina; Arfvidsson, Helen and Simon, David (2019) Governance for sustainable urban development : the double function of SDG indicators, Area Development and Policy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 217-235,

Jaeger, Andreas; Zusman, Eric; Nakano, Ryoko; Nagano, Aki; Dedicatoria, Ranell Martin and Aakawa, Kenji (2019) Filling environmental data gaps for SDG 11 : a survey of Japanese and Philippines cities with recommendations, In: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR) ; 216 :Achieving and sustaining SDGs 2018 Conference : Harnessing the Power of Frontier Technology to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (ASSDG 2018), pp. 129-142,

Melchiorri, Michele; Pesaresi, Martino; Florczyk, Aneta J.; Corbane, Christina; and Kemper, Thomas (2019) Principles and Applications of the Global Human Settlement Layer as Baseline for the Land Use Efficiency Indicator—SDG 11.3.1, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no 2, 96;
Nicolau, Rita; David, João; Caetano, Mário and Pereira, José M. C. (2019) Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate - analysis of different formulations applied to mainland Portugal, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no. 1, 10;
Rozhenkova, Veronika; Allmang, Skye; Ly, Stephanie; Franken, Daniel and Heymann, Jody (2019) The role of comparative city policy data in assessing progress toward the urban SDG [targets, 102357, Cities, vol. 95,

Schiavina, Marcello; Melchiorri, Michele; Corbane, Christina; Florczyk, Aneta J.; Freire, Sergio; Pesaresi, Martino and Kemper, Thomas (2019) Multi-Scale Estimation of Land Use Efficiency (SDG 11.3.1) across 25 Years Using Global Open and Free Data, Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 20, 5674;

SDSN (2019) 2019 SDG index and dashboards report : European cities  : prototype version [Prepared by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) and the Brabrant Center for Sustainable Development (Telos, Tilburg University)

Ulbrich, Philipp; Albuquerque, João Porto de and Coaffee, Jon (2019) The impact of urban inequalities on monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals : methodological considerations, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no. 1, 6;
Xu, Xueyan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhonghao and Fu, Jing (2019) An assessment of Chinese pathways to implement the UN Sustainable Development Goal-11 (SDG-11) - a case Study of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no. 13, 2288, (14 p.)
Zhang, Chi; Sun, Zhongchang; Xing, Qiang; Sun, Jialong; Xia, Tianyu and Yu, Hao (2019) Localizing indicators of SDG11 for an integrated assessment of urban sustainability - a case study of Hainan Province. Sustainability, 13(19), 11092,
HLPF on sustainable Development (2018) 2018 review of SDGs implementation : SDG 11 – make cites and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development
SDG 11 Synthesis report 2018 (2018) Tracking progress towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements, Nairobi, United Nations

Xiao, Wen; Mills, Jon; Guidi, Gabriele; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Barsanti, Sara Gonizzi and González-Aguilera, Diego (2018) Geoinformatics for the conservation and promotion of cultural heritage in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 142, pp. 389-406,

Arfvidsson, Helen; Simon, David; Oloko, Michael and Moodley, Nishendra (2017) Engaging with and measuring informality in the proposed Urban Sustainable Development Goal, African Geographical Review, vol. 36, no 1, pp. 100-114,
Greene, Solomon and Meixell, Brady (2017) Hacking the Sustainable Development Goals : Can US cities measure up? (Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center : research report ; September 2017), Washington, Urban Institute

Guzmán, P. C.; Pereira Roders, A. R. and Colenbrander, B. J. F. (2017) Measuring links between cultural heritage management and sustainable urban development : an overview of global monitoring tools, Cities, vol. 60, Part A, pp. 192-201,, also available on ResearchGate

Kaika, Maria (2017) ‘Don’t call me resilient again!’: the New Urban Agenda as immunology … or … what happens when communities refuse to be vaccinated with ‘smart cities’ and indicators, Environment and Urbanization, vol. 29 (1),
Klopp, Jacqueline M. and Petretta, Danielle L. (2017) The urban sustainable development goal : indicators, complexity and the politics of measuring cities, Cities, 63, pp. 92-97. Also available here

Schmidt-traub, Guido; Kroll, Christian; Teksoz, Katerina; Durand-Delacre, David and Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2017) National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards, Nature Geoscience, vol. 10, pp. 547-555, available through ResearchGate

Choi, Junyoung; Hwang, Myunghwa; Kim, Gayeon; Seong; Janghwan and Ahn, Jaeseong (2016) Supporting the measurement of the United Nations’ sustainable development goal 11 through the use of national urban information systems and open geospatial technologies : a case study of South Korea, Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, vol. 1. No. 4, (9 p.),
Lucci, Paula and Lynch, Alainna (2016) The SDGs at city level : Mumbai’s example (ODI working paper ; 432), London, Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
Lucci, Paula; Khan, Amina; Hoy, Christopher and Bhatkal, Tanvi (2016) Projecting progress : Are cities on track to achieve the SDGs by 2030? (ODI report ; October 2016), London, Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
Kharrazi, Ali; Qin, Hua and Zhang, Yi (2016) Urban big data and Sustainable Development Goals : challenges and opportunities, Sustainability, vol. 8, no. 12, 1293;


etadata for goal 11

UN-Habitat (2016) SDG goal 11 monitoring framework : a guide to assist national and local governments to monitor and report on SDG goal 11 Indicators, Nairobi, Research and Capacity Development Branch, United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat)
Simon, David and Arfvidsson, Helen (2015). Pilot project to test potential targets and indicators for the urban sustainable development goal 11 - final report, Göteborg, Mistra Urban Futures


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